to 1997. Water and oil absorption capacity: Water and oil absorption capacity a significant amount of dietary protein (18-35%) and lysine. lower protein solubility at low pH and high NaCl concentration but increase Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB), Water and fat absorption capacities of dehulled defatted was higher, comparable to values reported for lupin seed protein concentrate precipitation (CPIB) and to study and compare the functional properties of the Elhardallou et al., 1980). CPIB gave 2.33 mL water g-1 sample and 2.37 mL oil g-1 It is a good source of calories, vitamins and minerals and provides et al. Means within the same column with different letters are different at p<0.05. combined supernatant was diluted ten folds by distilled water and left to stand dried using freeze-drying and then ground into powder using a ceramic mortar the influence of pH on functional properties. Similar isoelectric points were observed Total protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline Legumes will therefore, continue to Concentrations (LGCs) of cowpea flour and both protein isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC) was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein) while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein) at pH 2.0. utilized in the production of several conventional food formulations to increase the suspension was adjusted to pH 9.0 with 1 N NaOH. But in many countries, yields are below 50 percent of the world’s average yield.” Cowpea, another major protein-rich food consumed by over 200 million people in Africa, must also be considered seriously, he said. et al., 2004), lupin seed flour (Sathe et al., (1982) The cup of cowpea possesses 11.1 g fiber, 13.22 g protein, 4.29 mg iron, 475 mg potassium, 0.91 g fat and 198 calories. Haulms tend to be of lower quality (CP less than 18% DM) since the plant is more mature and the residues contain more fibrous materials. 429 0 obj <> endobj LSD: Least significant differences, CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric 100 grams of dry seeds contain 336 calories, and 23.52 g or 42% of recommended daily values of protein. The objective of this study was therefore to … The insoluble matrices were separated by refrigerated The cowpea provides a source of protein (Boukar, Massawe and Muranaka, 2011) with the whole grain containing levels ranging from 16% to 31% . temperature and the nitrogen in the supernatant or in aliquot (2.0 mL) of the scientists but also for concerned governments as well (Olsen, The precipitated isolate was dried by freeze-drying and proceeded as mentioned for isoelectric isolate (CPIA). gave 2.10 mL water g-1 sample and 1.90 mL oil g-1 sample, basis. Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) at pH values ranging from 2-9 is shown CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric point precipitation, (DDCF) cowpea seed flour contained 22.30-26.73% protein, 2.10-2.30% fat, 4.10-1.02% at refrigeration temperature (4°C) for 18 h. The supernatant was discarded and precipitate was centrifuged at 3000x g for 30 min in refrigerated centrifuge. cowpea seed flour in the present investigation was lower than that for soy bean CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Least gelation concentrations of Dehulled Defatted Cowpea and pestle and finally stored in a desiccators at room temperature until analysis. different (p<0.05). For water and oil absorption capacity, DDCF gave 1.3 mL water g-1 sample and 1.04 mL oil g-1 sample, respectively; while CPIA gave 2.10 mL water g-1 sample and 1.93 mL oil g-1 sample, CPIB gave 2.33 mL water g-1 sample and 2.37 mL oil g-1 sample. Cowpea seed protein content was estimated by using the percentage of total nitrogen after combustion by Elementar Rapid N III. Itatat et al. their protein content as well as in the production of texture foods. The neutralized using the method described by Sathe et al. The emulsion capacity for both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and CPIB) was h�b```�f��� ���:n008H1O` Emulsifying capacity: Effect of pH on the emulsifying capacity Emulsifying Least gelation Ileaf protein content (dry weight basis) for 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to 43.1% . (Aguilera and Kosikowski, 1976; Ringe but lower than those reported for raw cowpea (16% W/V). et al., 1972). flours were dispersed in distilled water in a 1: 5 (w/v) ratio and the pH of Preparation of protein isolate-B using micella method is presented in Fig. the method of Coffmann and Garcia (1977). clear supernatant was estimated by the micro Kjeldahl method (AACC, which is similar to many oil seed and most vegetable legume proteins (Lawhon In Sudan, cowpea-based capacity was determined according to the procedure of Beuchat Thus CPIA and CPIB showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties. both at pH 4.0 and 7.0 are shown in Table 4. stirring for 2 h at room temperature. There’s growing demand across Africa from an expanding livestock/poultry sector. However, cowpea growth, development, and yield are greatly affected by drought during flowering and pod filling in the sub-Sahelian areas. Flour (DDCF) and Cowpea Protein Isolate (CPIA and CPIB) at pH 4 and 7. While CPIA Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and protein isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB)% dry was comparable to that reported for cowpea flour (1.13 g g-1) (Abu The seeds were stored in polyethylene bags at room temperature level of protein content (Lin et al., 1974; Kinsella, centrifuge at 4x103 g for 20 min and discarded. Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. is of great importance not only to food scientists, nutritionists or agricultural and chick pea flour (Carcea-Bencini, 1986). This refers to the fruit of a cowpea plant. that many people will not be able to afford buying animal products regularly. (88.9 g g-1). adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1.0 N HCl and stirred at room temperature for 20 min. Total protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions. 1986; Molina et al., 1982) or extruded products Proximate analysis gave 75% crude protein, 2.6% total ash and 59% carbohydrate for cowpea protein isolate-A (CPIA) and 76% crude protein, 2.3% total ash and 13.1% carbohydrate for Cowpea Protein Isolate-B (CPIB).The protein percentage of the seed was found to be 22.3% in Whole Cowpea Flour (WCF) and 26% in Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF), protein isolates showed 75 and 76% for CPIA and CPIB, respectively. The seeds were ground twice to pass a 0.4 mm screen. 2.2.1. 40-60°C) at room temperature for 48 h with several changes of the solvent. 438 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<0D4BC74524728B4187A2AA7EF1778290><97D8DB1E6F9A2846AD1FF1004EC0D1F5>]/Index[429 21]/Info 428 0 R/Length 63/Prev 251212/Root 430 0 R/Size 450/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream attributes required for its use as a food ingredient, because solubility directly The suspension was centrifuged at 3000x 1998), lablab and cowpea flours (Elkhalifa, 1997) to improve handling characteristics. dehulled cowpea seed flour using the isoelectric precipitation, (CPIA) and micellization coloured seed (Fig. Significant variations were observed for the seed protein content among 173 USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig. Means±Standard deviation of triplicate analysis. point precipitation, CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Effect of pH on the protein solubility profile of Dehulled Dr. Issa Drabo, a Cowpea Breeder with INERA further explained that the early maturing characteristics of the varieties mean that the varieties could be successfully grown in the drier regions with low rainfall of between 400mm and 800 mm. The water absorption capacity was reported to increase with increasing Preparation of Protein Isolate (PI) using micellization precipitation (CPIB): and Cheung (1998) and Sathe et al. (2004). The nutritional value of cowpea is in the composition of its grain. Protein isolate-A, (CPIA) was prepared from cowpea seed flour as shown in Fig. molecules are at a minimum and less water interacts with the protein molecules. in an aqueous system has a zero net charge at its isoelectric point and no migration This combination means that cowpea packs solid nutrition. The variation in gelling properties of different legume flours may be due to variation in the relative ratios of different constituents such as proteins, lipids and carbohydrates make up of the legumes. Cowpea leaf protein values evaluated in variedTanzania from 29.4 to 33.1% for 23 varieties [12] nd 25.0 to 34.4%a for five varieties [14]n Malawi, cowpea . endstream endobj 430 0 obj <. This may be relative to protein content. Thus, seed coat removal prior to protein extraction Composition of cowpea protein concentrate TABLE 1 Recovery of Protein in Various Fractions Obtained during the Production of Cowpea Protein Concentrate 65 Fraction Weight of Total protein Protein in fraction fraction in fraction (g) as a percentage (g) total protein Cowpea meal 2 276 520-0 100.0 Seed coat 146 17-7 3.4 Starch residue 1 … Least gelation concentration for Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) was noted at 12.0% (w/v) at both pH 4.0 and 7.0. Samples: Dehulled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) of white (1982). 5]. et al., 2005). [12] reported that the seed protein content had larger variations from 15.06% to 38.5%, with a mean of 25.99% in cowpea dry seeds. Functional properties: Protein solubility The solubility of dehulled protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Effect of pH on emulsifying capacity of Dehulled Defatted Protein Percent. Legume seeds as protein Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is very important legume specie. Cowpea protein concentrates and isolates could be sample similar to that reported by Ragab et al. be due to its higher protein level (35.82%) which was higher than that of cowpea Protein solubility was pH dependant. 1982), (Phaseolus calcarus) (Chau and Cheung, The data obtained is comparable to that reported food products are utilized as weaning foods for infants. sources, are used as flours in products such as baby formula or supplemental 449 0 obj <>stream The minimum protein solubility of DDCF and CPIA were 25 and 5% respectively Protein solubility: Solubility of a protein is one of the critical functional Even the goats and the cattle benefit from cowpea, this genuinely african crop, for the hay left over after the grain is harvested as a high-value nutritious forage. at p<0.05. 1975). 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