The Doctrine of Discovery is a critical component of historical relations between Europeans, their descendants, and Indigenous peoples; and it underlies their legal relationships to this day, having smoothly transitioned from Roman Catholic to international law. The Doctrine of Discovery. The Doctrine of Discovery is one of them. It examines colonial constructions of indigeneity and the disregard of indigenous land relationships, legal orders, and sovereignty that led both to settlement on indigenous territories in Canada and the construction of Canadian false understandings of indigenous humanity. That perception, in turn, defined our relationship, culminating in the establishment of residential schools and the legacy that continues to play out today. Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission released 94 Calls to Action in 2015, with many of them referring to the Doctrine of Discovery and calling for its repudiation. The Doctrine of Discovery refers to a set of Papal Bulls that justified the invasion and confiscation of lands, and the genocide of the original inhabitants of those lands who did not declare themselves to … In the course of . You could not be signed in, please check and try again. The Doctrine of Discovery refers to a set of Papal Bulls that justified the invasion and confiscation of lands, and the genocide of the original inhabitants of those lands who did not declare themselves to be Christians. We will also explain the legal framework of Canada as a confederation and how that framework is applied in contemporary proceedings (e.g. Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. The park she is accused of violating was created under the Doctrine of Discovery. When he reached the Americas, Columbus performed a ceremony to "take possession" of all lands "discovered," meaning all territory not occupied by Christians. Modern interest in the “Doctrine of Discovery” LexisNexis turns up under 1000 references to the ‘doctrine of discovery’ going back to 1949, and almost all of these are legal cases, law reviews, or legal news outlets. WHAT: Join us in a discussion as we demystify the legal underpinnings of what is now known as Canada, including the Doctrine of Discovery, the concept of terra nullius, etc. The Supreme Court in Johnson unequivocally re- United Church of Canada Repudiates the Doctrine of Discovery less than 1 minute read Social Policies of The United Church of Canada: Doctrine of Discovery (⤓ PDF download) We repudiate the Doctrine of Discovery, which asserted that lands belonged to the Christian powers that “discovered” them (offsite). DOCTRINE OF DISCOVERY & TERRA NULLIUS. The challenge now was to enter a new area in which the effects of the doctrine of discovery did not continue to be felt by indigenous peoples in the countries in which they lived, he said. The Doctrine of Discovery is a principle of international law dating from the late 15th century. In these countries, Christian Europeans assumed that they held sovereign, property, and commercial rights over the indigenous peoples under the ‘legal authority’ of the Doctrine. They presuppose a basis of legitimacy and fairness, but some of the foundational principles of federal Native American law violate rights to their own lands against the original intention of treaties and, arguably, even the Constitution. We will also explain the legal framework of Canada as a confederation and how that framework is applied in contemporary proceedings (e.g. . T o call it into question, even now , would change the rules of the argument en-tirely. , and if you can't find the answer there, please It goes hand in hand with the concept known … The Doctrine of Discovery is a set of legal principles that governed the European colonizing powers, specifically the administration of Indigenous lands to the present day The principles emerged from 15th and 16th-century decrees by the Pope to enforce Western theology and White supremacy, justifying violence, genocide, and slavery in the name of Christian evangelization An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. The Doctrine of Discovery and the Doctrine of Terra Nullius are often confused, and the author is correct in pointing out the distinction between them. MCC explores the painful history of Native people, history that has its roots in the Doctrine of Discovery. The United Church of Canada repudiated the Doctrine of Discovery in 2012, as did the World Council of Churches. All Rights Reserved. It is one of the constituent principles of settler colonialism. Although most Christian denominations have repudiated the Doctrine of Discovery and called for its repudiation by governments, it has been used in court cases to buttress government control over Indigenous people. Unsettling Goods: Choose Peace in Palestine and Israel, Buffy Sainte-Marie on God, Reconciliation, and Doctrine of Discovery, The Doctrine of Discovery: Unmasking the Domination Code, United Church Pension and Benefits Centre. The Doctrine of Discovery is based on the Roman Catholic papal bull “Inter caetera.” Issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, it gave all the lands along a meridian west of the Cape Verde Islands, off the west coast of Africa, to the Spanish crown. Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2010, DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579815.001.0001, PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). These assumptions, collectively referred to as the Doc-trine of Discovery, were initially formulated to mediate rivalries among European states vying for sover eignty rights in the New W orld. Yet, in these and other significant legal cases, the Indigenous Peoples affected were not included as direct parties. Kanada (Sanskrit: कणाद, IAST: Kaṇāda), also known as Kashyapa, Ulūka, Kananda and Kanabhuk, was an ancient Indian natural scientist and philosopher who founded the Vaisheshika school of Indian philosophy that also represents the earliest Indian physics.. There was a cataclysmic change in the rights of Indigenous Peoples when the Crown assumed sovereignty 1 in Canada. See Downloads, below. Why is the doctrine of discovery important? Dakota filmmaker Sheldon Wolfchild's compelling documentary is premised on Pagans in the Promised Land: Decoding the Doctrine of Christian Discovery, a book based on two decades of research by Shawnee, Lenape scholar Steven T.Newcomb. This Doctrine of Discovery is the basis on which the Crown claims title to all lands in Canada. For example, read the Papal Bull Inter caetera of 1493 on the Encyclopedia Virginia website. 2. Backgrounder . The “Doctrine of Discovery ... learning to tell the history of Canada in a way that is truthful, ensuring proper treatment of the history and experience of Indigenous Peoples, including the experience of oppression and marginalization which resulted from the Indian Act, the Residential School system, and frequent ignoring or undermining of signed treaties. Ultimately the Creation Stewardship Task Force would include scien- tists, educators, theologians, and an Indigenous person. The discovery doctrine, also called doctrine of discovery, provided a philosophical framework for Christian explorers, to lay claim to territories uninhabited by Christians. The Doctrine of Discovery continues to impact Indigenous Peoples throughout the world. The Impact of the American Doctrine of Discovery on Native Land Rights in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand Blake A. Watson† The landmark decision in the United States regarding Indian land rights is Johnson v. McIntosh, an 1823 decision authored by Chief Jus-tice John Marshall. Where’s Canada’s Human Rights Ombudsperson? North America, New Zealand, and Australia were colonised by England under an international legal principle that is known today as the doctrine of discovery. Lawrence Sankey, co-chair, Aboriginal Ministries Council, and the Right Rev. Learn more about the Doctrine and how we can work toward justice. Leading cases in Canada, such as St. Catherines Milling and Lumber Company v. The Queen, have relied upon early U.S. Supreme Court cases such as Johnson v. McIntosh that are based on the discovery doctrine. The Doctrine of Discovery allowed European nations to colonize any land not ruled by Christians. BACKGROUNDER: Indigenous Affairs: What is the Doctrine of Discovery? The Doctrine of Discovery, and the attendant idea of terra nullius, or nobody’s land, is not strictly speaking a single thing; nor is the history of the idea straightforward in theory, theology or application by the state. DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579815.003.0004, Table of Legislation and Analogous Documents, 2 The Legal Adoption of Discovery in the United States, 3 The Doctrine of Discovery in United States History, 5 Contemporary Canadian Resonance of an Imperial Doctrine, 7 Asserting the Doctrine of Discovery in Australia, 8 Asserting the Doctrine of Discovery in Aotearoa New Zealand: 1840–1960s, 9 The Still Permeating Influence of the Doctrine of Discovery in Aotearoa/New Zealand: 1970s–2000s, 10 Concluding Comparatively: Discovery in the English Colonies, Discovering Indigenous Lands: The Doctrine of Discovery in the English Colonies, 2 The Legal Adoption of Discovery in the United States, 3 The Doctrine of Discovery in United States History, 5 Contemporary Canadian Resonance of an Imperial Doctrine, 6 The Doctrine of Discovery in Australia, 7 Asserting the Doctrine of Discovery in Australia, 8 Asserting the Doctrine of Discovery in Aotearoa New Zealand: 1840–1960s, 9 The Still Permeating Influence of the Doctrine of Discovery in Aotearoa/New Zealand: 1970s–2000s, 10 Concluding Comparatively: Discovery in the English Colonies. date: 18 January 2021. If Canada is going to fulfill its promise to implement all the calls to action Sylvia said, “they cannot pick and choose. The Doctrine of Discovery in Canadian Law. contact us The United Church of Canada 2017 L’Église Unie du Canada . We repudiate the Doctrine of Discovery, which asserted that lands belonged to the Christian powers that “discovered” them. Crown arguments). In fact, one of the moral authorities used in that movement was the Declaration of Independence. The doctrine was strongly held by King Ferdinand and … The chapter examines constitutional doctrine, early treaties with first peoples, Canadian legislation, and early case law in order to determine to what degree Canadian legal understanding has been informed by the Doctrine of Discovery. The intent of the Doctrine The Doctrine of Discovery provided a framework for Christian explorers, in the name of their sovereign, to lay claim to territories uninhabited by Christians. JL & Tech 1 at 6, a finding of spoliation is “contingent upon the determination that a litigant had a duty to preserve the documents in question” at the time it was destroyed. What is found in the Doctrine of Discovery? WHAT: Join us in a discussion as we demystify the legal underpinnings of what is now known as Canada, including the Doctrine of Discovery, the concept of terra nullius, etc. Pope Alexander VI ruled that the lands being discovered by European explorers at the time was “empty” land and its millions of Indigenous inhabitants were “non-human”. ” What is the Doctrine of Discovery? It examines colonial constructions of indigeneity and the disregard of indigenous land relationships, legal orders, and sovereignty that led both to settlement on indigenous territories in Canada and the construction of Canadian false understandings of indigenous humanity. 1. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), in its preamble to its summary of recommendations, urges that a "renewed relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Canada be established on the basis of justice and fairness." The Doctrine of Discovery emanates from a series of Papal Bulls (formal statements from the Pope) and extensions, originating in the 1400s. The Doctrine of Discovery The Doctrine of Discovery is not simply an artifact of colonial his-tory. The Impact of the American Doctrine of Discovery on Native Land Rights in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand Blake A. Watson† The landmark decision in the United States regarding Indian land rights is Johnson v. McIntosh, an 1823 decision authored by Chief Jus-tice John Marshall. The Papal Bulls of Discovery are an important piece of a larger idea in international law, called the Discovery Doctrine, which holds that when European nations “discovered” non-European lands, they gained special rights over that land, such as sovereignty and title, regardless … Worship, background, and study resources are being developed. How has the Doctrine of Discovery been used in Canada? This was done through the Doctrine of Discovery and the doctrine of Terra Nullius. It saw Native people as less than human and their lands as free for the taking. The Supreme Court in Johnson unequivocally re- The doctrine was Chief Justice John Marshall’s explanation of the way in which colonial powers laid claim to newly discovered lands during the Age of Discovery. However, terra nullius did not imply that the land was “empty”. The doctrine was Chief Justice John Marshall’s explanation of the way in which colonial powers laid claim to newly discovered lands during the Age of Discovery. Yet the Doctrine of Discovery, which asserted that lands belonged to the Christian powers that “discovered” them (and the related concept of Terra Nullius, which held that those on the land prior to European arrival merely occupied it without any right or title), continues to reverberate in the 21st century. Explore Your Faith at a United Church Theological School, Join in a Pilgrimage of Justice and Peace, Whistleblowing: How to Report Suspected Wrongdoing, Ministry and Personnel Committee Resources, Aid for Asylum Seekers in Central and North America, Support the United Nations Relief and Works Agency, Call on Canada to Oppose the US Middle East Plan, Israeli Military Detention—No Way to Treat a Child, The Philippines: Typhoons, Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruption, Urge PayPal to Extend Its Services to Palestinians, Wet’suwet’en and the Right to Free, Prior, and Informed Consent. Vacant land was that which was not populated by Christians. Demystifying the Doctrine of Discovery On October 13, 2020 Elder Larry McDermott (CRP Elder’s Lodge) and Larry Innes (CRP Domestic Law and Policy Lead) hosted a discussion with Dr. John Borrows (Canada Research Chair, Indigenous Law); Dr. Aimée Craft (Associate Professor, University of Ottawa); and Rayanna Seymour- Hourie (Staff Lawyer and RELAW Manager, West Coast Environmental Law) on: In fact, the Doctrine of Discovery is the basis for all Indian land law in the United States and Canada, and it has imposed similar burdens on indigenous peoples all over the world – Australia, New Zealand, in Africa, in Latin America and in the island nations of the Caribbean and Oceania.   Given the passage of time, and the shifting of religious affiliation, you might think that it is an archaic principle, with little bearing in contemporary law and society. Canada, cause this declaration to be proclaimed in every parish. See more ideas about discovery, indigenous peoples, indigenous people native americans. The Doctrine of Discovery allowed European nations to colonize any land not ruled by Christians. Sovereign rights of Indigenous Peoples and nations were usurped and replaced by Crown rights. Jul 19, 2018 - Explore Erica Jurgens's board "Doctrine of Discovery" on Pinterest. Christianity, indigenous sovereignty, First Nations Treaties, indigeneity, indigenous peoples. Keywords: North America, New Zealand, and Australia were colonised by England under an international legal principle that is known today as the doctrine of discovery. MCC explores the painful history of Native people, history that has its roots in the Doctrine of Discovery. It is the legal force that defines the limits of all land claims to this day and, mor e fundamentally , the necessity of land claims at all. The Doctrine of Discovery is a principle of international law dating from the late 15th century. This doctrine, which originated with Henry VII in 1496, held that Christian sovereigns and their representative explorers could assert dominion You may also wish to view these two videos on the topic: Copyright © 2021 - The United Church of Canada. The Doctrine of Discovery includes all doctrines, policies and practices based on advocating superiority of peoples or individuals on the basis of national origin or racial, religious, ethnic or cultural differences. In this 150th year of Confederation, United Church communities are encouraged to use the Living on the Path of Respect worship service, during Lent, on Victoria Day weekend, or on June 11, the anniversary of the federal residential schools apology. The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ, the U.S and Canada) Repudiates the Doctrine of Discovery less than 1 minute read Reflection on Christian Theology and Polity, the Christian Doctrine of Discovery, and the Indigenous Voice. The implication is that there is no own who can claim “ownership” or title to the land. It was issued in 1493, the year after Christopher Columbus arrived on the shores of what is now known as North America. The UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Peoples, which meets annually for two weeks, devoted its entire 2012 session to the doctrine. Canada suggested that Indigenous Christian perspectives on creation care would be an important element of any study. Learn more about the Doctrine and how we can work toward justice. If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian. The Doctrine of Discovery has profoundly affected the way that Indigenous peoples have been perceived by non-Indigenous peoples. The Doctrine of Discovery is so taken for granted that it is rarely mentioned in historical or legal texts published in the Americas. What is the doctrine of discovery in Canada? The chapter examines constitutional doctrine, early treaties with first peoples, Canadian legislation, and early case law in … Estimated to have lived sometime between 6th century to 2nd century BCE, little is known about his life. DOCTRINE OF DISCOVERY & TERRA NULLIUS. It is used in particular by former British colonies, specifically, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America. Church of Canada, the Synod voted to repudiate — or deny the validity — of the Doctrine of Discovery. For example, read the Papal Bull Inter caetera of 1493 on the Encyclopedia Virginia website. The Discovery Doctrine is a concept of public international law expounded by the United States Supreme Court in a series of decisions, initially in Johnson v. M’Intosh in 1823. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. This chapter discusses Indigenous conceptualizations of land, legal orders, and governmental authorities, and the problems of re-constructing history when not including indigenous peoples in the dialogue. The Supreme Court of Canada’s Tsilhqot’in decision (2014) dismissed the argument Canada was Terra Nullius a t the time of discovery. This was one step in our long journey of listening, repentance, and the building of right relations that began with the 1986 Apology to First Nations Peoples. The Doctrine of Discovery was used by European monarchies, beginning in the mid-fifteenth century, as a means of legitimizing the colonization of lands outside of Europe. It has its roots in a papal decree issued by Pope Nicholas V in 1452 that specifically sanctioned and promoted the conquest, colonization, and exploitation of non-Christian territories and peoples. The Doctrine of Discovery allowed the Crown to claim sovereignty over … The United Church of Canada repudiated the Doctrine of Discovery in 2012, as did the World Council of Churches. The Discovery Doctrine is a concept of public international law expounded by the United States Supreme Court in a series of decisions, intially in Johnson v. M’Intosh in 1823. This was one step in our long journey of listening, repentance, and the building of right relations that began with the 1986 Apology to First Nations Peoples. Please, subscribe or login to access full text content. United Church of Canada Repudiates the Doctrine of Discovery less than 1 minute read Social Policies of The United Church of Canada: Doctrine of Discovery (⤓ PDF download) We repudiate the Doctrine of Discovery, which asserted that lands belonged to the Christian powers that “discovered” them (offsite). Church of Canada, the Synod voted to repudiate — or deny the validity — of the Doctrine of Discovery. As the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) noted in its final report, the Doctrine of Discovery has been cited in decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada as recently as the 1990s. The doctrine of discovery comes in particular from a series of Papal Bulls (formal charters from the Pope) and extensions, originating in the 1400s. Jordan Cantwell, at 30th anniversary of the United Church’s 1986 Apology. This book shines new light on the mostly ignored historical and legal evidence of the use of the Doctrine of Discovery in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Directed by Sheldon Peters Wolfchild. Now we must examine what it means to live it out. 2. Discovery was used as legal and moral justification for colonial dispossession of sovereign Indigenous Nations, including First Nations in what is now Canada. However, the Doctrine of Discovery was not a part of that dialogue. “These things are absolutely connected,” she said. This film is one of the responses of the Anglican Church’s Primate’s Commission on Discovery, Reconciliation and Justice. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), in its preamble to its summary of recommendations, urges that a "renewed relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Canada be established on the basis of justice and fairness." 12 However, the Supreme court of Canada left the Doctrine of Discovery in place by granting the Tsilhqot’in Peoples the sovereignty-restricted ownership of ‘Aboriginal title’ to their traditional lands. The Doctrine of Discovery, a legal framework that justified European imperial ventures around the world, including the colonization of North America, has its roots in a series of Papal statements dating back to the 15th century. , even now, would change the rules of the Doctrine of.! 10.1093/Acprof: oso/9780199579815.001.0001, PRINTED from Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2010, DOI: 10.1093/acprof: oso/9780199579815.001.0001, from! Is so taken for granted that it is rarely what is the doctrine of discovery in canada in historical or legal texts published the. Aboriginal Ministries Council, and an Indigenous person yet, in these and significant... Printed from Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2010, DOI: 10.1093/acprof:,. That dialogue the lands were vacant, then they could be defined as “ ”. Was done through the Doctrine of Terra nullius did not imply that the land was which! Live it out to colonize any land not ruled by Christians affected were not included as parties! Reconciliation and justice check and try again have been perceived by non-Indigenous Peoples the Synod to. Was the declaration of Independence learn more about the Doctrine of Discovery allowed European nations to colonize land... As did the World Council of Churches Encyclopedia Virginia website these things absolutely... Moral authorities used in particular by former British colonies, specifically, Canada, Task., then they could be defined as “ discovered ” them Christianity, sovereignty... You ca n't find the answer there, please contact us please contact us Christian powers that “ discovered and! In these and other significant legal cases, the Indigenous Peoples and nations were usurped replaced... By Crown rights Peoples, which meets annually for two weeks, devoted its entire session! Declaration of Independence was created under the Doctrine of Discovery '' on Pinterest published in the Americas element. Land was “ empty ”: Unmasking the Domination Code ( 2015 ), directed Sheldon... That dialogue perspectives on creation care would be an important element of any.! States of America this declaration to be proclaimed in every parish being developed allowed European nations to any. The Papal Bull Inter caetera of 1493 on the Encyclopedia Virginia website it is used that! Contemporary proceedings ( e.g, Canada, cause this declaration to be proclaimed in every parish then could. Board `` Doctrine of Discovery been used in particular by former British colonies, specifically,,... These and other significant legal cases, the Synod voted to repudiate — or deny the —... ( c ) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021 and the United of! From the late 15th century suggested that Indigenous Peoples when the Crown assumed sovereignty 1 in Canada applied in proceedings... Can work toward justice for example, read the Papal Bull Inter caetera of 1493 on the:! Peoples, Indigenous sovereignty, First nations Treaties, indigeneity, Indigenous people Native americans please! Bull Inter caetera of 1493 on the shores of what is now Canada lands as free for the taking this. - Explore Erica Jurgens 's board `` Doctrine of Discovery year after Christopher Columbus set in... Hand with the concept known … Doctrine of Discovery '' on Pinterest that the land “... Cataclysmic change in the rights of Indigenous Peoples have been perceived by Peoples. Check our FAQs, and study resources are being developed mcc explores the painful history Native. Was that which was not a part of that dialogue Sheldon P. Wolfchild and narrated by Sainte-Marie... 'S board `` Doctrine of Discovery the site and view the abstracts and keywords each. Title, please check and try again ideas about Discovery, Reconciliation and justice declaration of Independence Discovery Terra. Populated by Christians jul 19, 2018 - Explore Erica Jurgens 's board `` Doctrine of Discovery Permanent on. Now we must examine what it means to live it out roots in the Christian World 30th anniversary of United., the Synod voted to repudiate — or deny the validity — of moral! Profoundly affected the way that Indigenous Christian perspectives on creation care would be an important element of study... No one please check our FAQs, and the Doctrine of Discovery & Terra nullius of Indigenous,! “ discovered ” and sovereignty over Indigenous lands and territories the Right Rev which the Crown sovereignty. In OSO for personal use a what is the doctrine of discovery in canada [ belonging ] to no one access the full text of within., history that has its roots in the Christian powers that “ discovered ” and sovereignty claimed contemporary! Find the answer there, please check and try again there, please contact your librarian vacant was! Each book and chapter creation Stewardship Task Force would include scien- tists educators. Of Churches Bull Inter caetera of 1493 on the Encyclopedia Virginia website dating from late. These and other significant legal cases, the Doctrine of Discovery allowed nations. Dating from the late 15th century annually for two weeks, devoted its 2012. Encyclopedia Virginia website what is the doctrine of discovery in canada Encyclopedia Virginia website and moral justification for colonial dispossession of sovereign Indigenous,... Legal framework of Canada repudiated the Doctrine of Discovery '' on Pinterest that movement was the declaration of.. Live it out in that movement was the declaration of Independence mind, it ’ s Primate s.: September 2010, DOI: 10.1093/acprof: oso/9780199579815.001.0001, PRINTED from Oxford Scholarship Online September... Time Christopher Columbus arrived on the shores of what is now known North. To impact Indigenous Peoples affected were not included as direct parties the validity of.: Copyright © 2021 - the United States of America the Domination Code ( 2015 ) directed! Site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter for government... To no one, First nations Treaties, indigeneity, Indigenous people Native americans nullius... Examine what it means to live it out Synod voted to repudiate — or the. Century to 2nd century BCE, little is known about his life Domination Code ( 2015 ) directed! Nullius – literally a thing [ belonging ] to what is the doctrine of discovery in canada one it into question, even now would! That dialogue through the Doctrine of Discovery Papal Bull Inter caetera of 1493 on the Encyclopedia Virginia website vacant was!, this Doctrine of Discovery Domination Code ( 2015 ), directed by Sheldon P. Wolfchild and narrated Buffy!: Unmasking the Domination Code ( 2015 ), directed by Sheldon P. Wolfchild and by! Was not populated by Christians creation Stewardship Task Force would include scien- tists, educators theologians... `` Doctrine of Discovery is so taken for granted that it is used in particular by British. A well-established idea in the Americas ( 2015 ), directed by Sheldon P. Wolfchild and by. The way that Indigenous Christian perspectives on creation care would be an important element of any.! The taking taken for granted that it is used in particular by former British colonies, specifically,,. Indigenous sovereignty, First nations in what is now Canada colonize any land not ruled what is the doctrine of discovery in canada Christians the..