An approach for calculating distributed factor of safety of the irregular shear plane was put forward in this paper. Premium PDF Package. Base failure occurs when there is a weak soil strata under the toe and failure plane passes through base of slope. Toe failure is the most common failure in which failure plane passes through toe of slope. Rock Slope Failure. This chapter describes the method of analysis for plane failure and demonstrates its application to the design of reinforced slopes. On a bench scale, structurally controlled failures such as plane shear and wedge failures are common. Alternatively, the planar failure may be located on a nose of rock so that the slope forms the lat-eral termination of the failure mass. Landslide developed in rock mass usually has irregular shear plane. Title of Legally Binding Document: Code of practice for reinforcement of rock slopes with plane wedge failure Number of Amendments: 1 Equivalence: Superceding: Superceded by: LEGALLY BINDING DOCUMENT Step Out From the Old to the New--Jawaharlal Nehru Invent a new India using knowledge.--Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda Addeddate 2013-09-13 06:47:25 Identifier gov.in.is.14448.1997 … Weak or fragmented rock, like soil, may fail in the circular mode. The slope angle is sometimes referred to as a ratio, for example, 2:1 [horizontal (H):vertical (V)]. An extract from Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes for Plane & Wedge Failure with the Aid of a programmable Pocket Calculator, K. Kovari and P. Fritz, Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland Institute of Highways and Underground Structures, Department of Rock Mechanics, 10 pgs. " Fig 3: Rotational Failure . Calculation of the daylight envelope for plane failure of rock slopes. Anchored rock slope… 1-6. In stratified sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rock formations ‘plane mode’ of rock failure is very common. 10.1680/geot.2004.54.4.279 Plane failure in rock slopes – A review on stability analysis techniques. 3.1 . 3.2 . The unit weight of the rock is γ. There is a theory that all slopes are inherently unstable and it is only a matter of geologic time that slope failure occurs. The plane failure occurs when a structural discontinuity plane such as; bedding plane, fault plane or preferred orientations of a joint set dips or daylight towards the valley or excavation at an angle smaller than the slope angle and greater than the angle of friction of the discontinuity surface. Rock slope failure involves an interplay between existing discontinuities and development of new fractures in intact material. 28, Sharma et al. It is also known as block failure or plane failure. Rock Slope Wedge Failure Typical wedge failure involving sliding on two persistent joints with line of intersection of joints daylighting at toe of rock face, and an upper plane that formed a tension crack. The failure surfaces are usually structural discontinuities such as bedding planes, faults, joints or the interface between bedrock and an overlying layer of weathered rock. 32, and Rocscience 33 went on to extend the failure model to a complex case in which both the top surface of the slope and the tension cracks are inclined. Rotational failure can be seen in finite slopes such as earthen dams, embankments, man-made slopes etc. The plane failure occurs when a structural discontinuity plane such as; bedding plane, fault plane or preferred orientations of a joint set dips or daylight towards the valley or excavation at an angle smaller than the slope angle and greater than the angle of friction of the discontinuity surface. In this manner the engineer can obtain a good idea of the sensitivity of the rock slope … There are several types of rock slope failures observed in different field situations; a plane failure is one of them. Stability analysis of anchored rock slopes against plane failure subjected to surcharge and seismic loads @inproceedings{Hossain2011StabilityAO, title={Stability analysis of anchored rock slopes against plane failure subjected to surcharge and seismic loads}, author={M. Hossain}, year={2011} } An analysis is presented here which can take these factors into account. Observed failure modes in rock slopes are of a wide variety. Hoek and Bray 31 proposed a sliding failure model for the stability analysis of a plane rock slope for which the upper sliding body includes the horizontal sliding surface and vertical tension cracks. It is also common when there are fissures, joints, or weak soil layers in slope, or when a slope is made of two different materials. The wedge failure generates a failure plane that is inclined. There are numerous analytical methods for the rock slope stability including limit equilibrium, stress analysis and stereographic methods. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. Geotechnique -London- 54 (4) , pp. The intersection of planar discontinuities in the rock mass with the surface slope is predisposing toward plane and wedge failures. T&F logo. Although the discontinuity orientations were the same in all two-dimensional models, different ratios of joint plane spacings to bedding plane spacings were used. There are numerous analytical methods for the rock slope stability including limit equilibrium, stress analysis and stereographic methods. Plane Failure Analysis calculates the factor of safety for plane failures in rock and soil slopes where defined discontinuity planes exist. Source: A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering, 1 Jan 2001 (241–261) Investigation of rock anchorage failures and cutting remediation at Glyn Bends, North Wales, UK. 2.6 Conditions of effective forces in the wedge failure analysis 15 Fig. Rotational Failure Rotational Failure. Free PDF. Definitions of key Terms in Slope Failure. The slope face is vertical with a height H, the failure plane is oriented at an angle ψ, and a vertical load, L, is applied to the upper slope. Download with Google Download with Facebook. The stability of the slope, having plane mode of failure, depends on the geometry…, Stability analysis of rock wedge slide subjected to groundwater dynamic evolution, Probabilistic and Sensitivity Analysis of Rock Slope Using Anisotropic Material Models for Planar Failures, UDEC-based stability analysis of jointed bedding slope and slope parameter optimization suggestions: a case study, Stability Analysis of Rock Structure in Large Slopes and Open-Pit Mine: Numerical and Experimental Fault Modeling, Governing factors influence on rock slope stability – Statistical analysis for plane mode of failure, Comprehensive Method to Test the Stability of High Bedding Rock Slop Subjected to Atomized Rain, A review on the development of rock slope stability assessment in Malaysia, Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Faults in Open-Pit Mining Stability, Assessment of stability of a Himalayan road cut slope with varying degrees of weathering: A finite-element-model-based approach, Analysis of Geotechnical-Assisted 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography Monitoring of Slope Instability in Residual Soil of Weathered Granitic Basement, A new approach to plane failure of rock slope stability based on water flow velocity in discontinuities for the Latian dam reservoir landslide, ROCK SLOPES PROCESSES AND RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR ANALYSIS, Stability analysis of stratified rock slopes with spatially variable strength parameters: the case of Qianjiangping landslide, Developments in the characterization of complex rock slope deformation and failure using numerical modelling techniques, Probabilistic method to determine the overall rock block failure based on failure mode, Evaluation of rock slope stability for Yujian River dam site by kinematic and block theory analyses, The assessment of slope stability and rock excavatability in a limestone quarry, Effect of Surcharge on the Stability of Anchored Rock Slope with Water Filled Tension Crack under Seismic Loading Condition, Numerical analysis of initiation and progressive failure in natural rock slopes—the 1991 Randa rockslide, Journal of King Saud University - Science, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our. Wedge Failure. The plane failure in rock slope occur when a structural discontinuity plane dips or daylight towards the valley at an angle smaller than the slope face angle and greater than the angle of friction of the discontinuity surface (Tang et al., 2016, Kovari and Fritz, 1984). Plane Failure A rock slope undergoes this mode of failure when combinations of discontinuities in the rock mass form blocks or wedges within the rock which are free to move. Rotational failure can be seen in finite slopes such as earthen dams, embankments, man-made slopes etc. Plane failure in rock slope. 2nd Quarter 2005 C over Story 24 and especially mapping of the geological structures (e.g. 27. Four such ratios were tested, as summarized in Table I. ±20°). 2.5 Wedge failure 14 Fig. the circular failure can be considered. Your Account. International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment: Vol. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. [1], [3] and [4] gave the analytical solution for the plane failure mode in rock slopes. However, as the scale increases, simple structurally controlled failures are less dominate, and more complex failures such as step-path failures start to develop. the circular failure can be considered. Failure of a rock slope on one or two plane surfaces is the simplest but at the same time the most important type of sliding failure and forms the basis for the stability analysis of rock slopes. Search: Search all titles. In Fig. Logout. a) For the rock slope shown below, derive an equation for the factor of safety against sliding using the plane failure equilibrium technique. The unit weight of the rock is γ. Failure in rock slope masses governs by the presence of joints, its orientation, and joints’ persistence. The stability of the slope, having plane mode of failure, can be assessed by different methods which can be broadly classified as conventional and numerical methods. Plane mode of failure generally occurs in slope formed by stratified sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rock formations. The pattern of the discontinuities may be comprised of a single discontinuity or a pair of discontinuities that intersect each other, or a combination of multiple discontinuities that are linked together to form a … 279-280. It is also known as block failure or plane failure. The stability of the slope, having plane mode of failure, depends on the geometry, rock type, potential failure plane characteristics, groundwater conditions, dynamic loading and the surcharge conditions. Kinematic Analysis – Planar Rock Slope Failure To consider the kinematic admissibility of plane instability, five necessary but simple geometrical criteria must be met: (i) The plane on which sliding occurs must strike near parallel to the slope face (within approx. This is mainly due to the presence of joints/discontinuities within the rock mass. The present work focuses on the study of the wedge failure, which occurs as sliding of a mass of rock on two intersecting planes, generally discontinuity planes. In this work we study progressive failure using concepts of statistical physics and by means of numerical methods using distinct element methods (DEM). IS 14448 (1997): Code of practice for reinforcement of rock slopes with plane wedge failure. Figure. Slope stability analysis is a static or dynamic, analytical or empirical method to evaluate the stability of earth and rock-fill dams, embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and rock. Mechanism of rock slope failure under self weight, water forces, surcharge, horizontal seismic force, and stabilizing force. A rockslide is a type of landslide caused by rock failure in which part of the bedding plane of failure passes through compacted rock and material collapses en masse and not in individual blocks. The infinite slope is defined as the slope having no boundaries and contains same properties of soil up to assumed equal depth along the slope. 28 Full PDFs related to this … Slip plane or failure plane or slip surface or failure surface is the surface of sliding. Toppling can occur for a variety of reasons: undercutting of the toe of the slope, frost-wedging … 1: Dimensions and surfaces defining size and shape of wedge. This type of failure occurs when there are fissures, joints, or weak soil layers in slope, or when a … There are several parameters including surcharge and seismic loads that govern the stability of the rock slope against plane failure in field projects. The aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of the main parameters on the safety factor (Hoek and Londe, 1974). Plane failures in rock slopes occur when a geological discontinuity strikes parallel or nearly parallel to the slope face and dips at an angle greater than the angle of internal friction. Search all titles. • Rockslides occur where sheets of rock move downslope on a planar sliding surface such as a bedding plane or fracture surface. Plane failure analysis of rock slopes: A reliability approach. Each of these methods has their own advantage and limitations owing to the slope conditions, application requirement and capability of an expert. 1, pp. 9, No. In this paper, a combination of methods including Google Earth and field investigations is applied to investigate the process of eastern slope failure induced by underground mining in the Yanqianshan Iron Mine over five years. 1-6. Plane Failure. Sliding mass is the mass of soil within the slip plane and the ground surface. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. This paper . Therefore, in kinematic analysis, the orientation of the combination of discontinuities and slope face is examined to determine if certain modes of failure can be occurred. The limiting equilibrium methods for slopes under various conditions against plane failure have been previously proposed by several investigators. a) For the rock slope shown below, derive an equation for the factor of safety against sliding using the plane failure equilibrium technique. or. Geometry of slope exhibiting plane failure: (a) cross-section of the rock slope with a plane failure situation; and (b) release surfaces at ends of plane failure. [1], [3] and [4] gave the analytical solution for the plane failure mode in rock slopes. The slope may demonstrate these conditions in a simple uniform manner or there may be complex conditions owing to variability in the slope geometry and heterogeneity in the slope material. If sliding distance of rock block or rock mass that detached by sliding, toppling, or falling was negligible to descending distance through air, it is dened as Summary A simple formula for plane slope failure is derived, which may be used for the design of … • As they fall, the mass will roll and bounce into the air with great force and thus shatter the material into smaller fragments. Slope angle is the angle of inclination of a slope to the horizontal. Stability analysis of anchored rock slopes against plane failure subjected to surcharge and seismic loads @inproceedings{Hossain2011StabilityAO, title={Stability analysis of anchored rock slopes against plane failure subjected to surcharge and seismic loads}, author={M. Hossain}, year={2011} } Plane failures in rock slopes occur when a geological discontinuity strikes parallel or nearly parallel to the slope face and dips at an angle greater than the angle of internal friction. You are currently offline. 2.4 Geometries of plane slope failure: (a) tension crack in the upper slope; (b) tension crack in the face 12 Fig. Stability of Finite Slopes with Plane Failure Surface ... • Rapidly moving mass of material (rock or soil) that travels mostly through the air with little or no interaction between moving unit and another. PDF. Landslide can result either from rock failure or soil failure. Geometry of slope exhibiting plane failure: (a) cross-section of the rock slope with a plane failure situation; and (b) release surfaces at ends of plane failure. 27. Create a free account to download. Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University. © 2017 The Author. In this case the failure plane intersects the slope above toe. ROCK ANCHOR STABILISATION OF BEDDING PLANE SHEAR FAILURES ON THE A55, RHUALLT HILL ... CHAPTER EIGHT Types of rock slope failures: kinematic feasibility. Journal of King Saud University - Science, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2017.06.004. 21 are shown four types of failure of rock slopes: (a) plane, (b) wedge, (c) circular, and (d) toppling. 3.2 . Toe failure is the most common failure in which failure plane passes through toe of slope. Plane failure with condition of failures • The dip direction of the planar discontinuity must be within ( ±20o) of the dip direction of the slope face • The dip of the planar discontinuity must be less than the dip of the slope face (Daylight) • The dip of the planar discontinuity must … The plane failure occurs when a structural discontinuity plane such as; bedding plane, fault plane or preferred orientations of a joint set dips or daylight towards the valley or excavation at an angle smaller than the slope angle and greater than the angle of friction of the discontinuity surface. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. A view of the slope analyzed may be saved as a bitmap with a summary printed alongside. Stability analysis of anchored rock slopes against plane failure subjected to surcharge and seismic loads @inproceedings{Hossain2011StabilityAO, title={Stability analysis of anchored rock slopes against plane failure subjected to surcharge and seismic loads}, author={M. Hossain}, year={2011} } The limiting equilibrium methods for slopes under various conditions against plane failure have been previously proposed by several investigators. The aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of the main parameters on the safety factor (Hoek and Londe, 1974). When the instability is dictated by the presence of pre-existing discontinuities, the instability takes the form of plane sliding, wedge sliding or toppling. 3.1 . Slope Failure Processes • Rock fall occurs when ice wedging loosens angular boulders from rocky cliffs. Download Free PDF. 2nd Quarter 2005 C over Story 24 and especially mapping of the geological structures (e.g. In Fig. The intersection of planar discontinuities in the rock mass with the surface slope is predisposing toward plane and wedge failures. Corpus ID: 109749725. Problem statement: Computer aided analysis of wedge stability by means of the computer code SWEDGE (Rocsience). The plane failure is one of the rock slope failures observed in field situations when the discontinuity is in the form of joint planes. Areas subjected to slope deforma-tion can provide important insights into the actual cause of rock avalanching, and may help to identify key observations that warn or are precursors of future events. While in rock the failure plane is predetermined, in soil failure, the failure plane occurs along the line of maximum stress. 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