The flooding followed the previous year's floods, which devastated a large part of the country. [40][41] Sindhu Darshan Festival is held on every Guru Purnima on the banks of Indus. Major carp become common, and chameleonfish (Badis), mullet (Sicamugil) and swamp eel (Monopterus) appear. "But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change," and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. [citation needed] As a result, the 2010 Pakistan floods were considered "good news" for the ecosystem and population of the river delta as they brought much needed fresh water. They constitute the Indus River system. Uzma Khan, director of biodiversity at WWF Pakistan told APP that the Indus river blind dolphin is an endangered species of the fresh waters and is only found in the Indus river system… Get Full Access to AU - GEOG 1010 - Study Guide. Therefore, their flow is always different at times of the year. [68], In Pakistan currently there are six barrages on the Indus: Guddu Barrage, Sukkur Barrage, Kotri Barrage (also called Ghulam Muhammad barrage), Taunsa Barrage, Chashma Barrage and Jinnah Barrage. [8][9][10][11][12] The variation between the two names is explained by the Old Iranian sound change *s > h, which occurred between 850 and 600 BCE according to Asko Parpola. Only that the Indus flooded twice and the Nile River only flood once a year. It is also known as the Sindhu, is the westernmost of the Himalayan rivers in India. The Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500–5,200 metres (15,000–17,000 feet) deep near the Nanga Parbat massif. India can use nearly 20% of the total water carried by the Indus river system. [49][50], Vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta are threatened by the reduced inflow of fresh water, along with extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming. It was crossed by the invading armies of Alexander, but after his Macedonians conquered the west bank—joining it to the Hellenic world, they elected to retreat along the southern course of the river, ending Alexander's Asian campaign. It has a large number of tributaries in both India and Pakistan and has a total length of about 2897 km from the source to the point near Karachi where it falls into the Arabian Sea out of which approx 700km lies in India. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the South of Thatta in the Sindh province of Pakistan, The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world to exhibit a tidal bore. For instance, the flow is bare minimum during the winter months (December to February); there is a rise the level of water in spring and early summer (March to June), and floods are bound to happen during the rainy season (July to September). At least 1.7 million acres (690,000 ha; 2,700 sq mi) of arable land were inundated. Major Rivers of Indus River System Source Length Indus Glaciers of Kailas Range (Close to Manasarovar Lake) 2880 km total. Together form the Himalayan river system. Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. Indus River System is made of Indus River and its tributaries viz. One of the largest river basin in the world. The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein, except for the Brahmaputra. The population of fish in the river is moderately high, with Sukkur, Thatta, and Kotri being the major fishing centres – all in the lower Sindh course. 11,65,000 Sq. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). [36] Many of the species of the middle sections of the Indus basin are also present in the lower. High levels of pollutants in the river have led to the deaths of endangered Indus river dolphin. For the Bronze Age civilisation, see, "Indus" and "Sindhu" redirect here. The Indus people needed river water to drink, wash and to irrigate their fields. The large delta has been recognized by conservationists as an important ecological region. Flowing West, it enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu & Kashmir. Its principal right-bank tributaries are the Shyok, Gilgit, Kabul, Kurram and Gomal rivers. It is attested 176 times in its text, 94 times in the plural, and most often used in the generic sense of "river". [62] In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely affected northern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland was destroyed, and the southern province of Sindh. The Government of Pakistan established the Indus River System Authority in the year_____? The Shyok, Shigar and Gilgit rivers carry glacial waters into the main river. To account for the maintenance of this cooperation the paper argues that it is necessary to consider the design of the Permanent Indus Commission, an institution established to manage the Indus River. Lenth is 2,525 km in India. According to the data released by IRSA, water level in the Indus River at Tarbela Dam was 1460.90 feet, which was 74.90 feet higher than its dead level 1386 feet. [30] Earlier work showed that sand and silt from western Tibet was reaching the Arabian Sea by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River by that time. Aartee Mishra. The Indus River came into the knowledge of the West early in the classical period, when King Darius of Persia sent his Greek subject Scylax of Caryanda to explore the river, c. 515 BC. This video is on Indus river system and its tributaries - Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. The remainder of its route to the sea is in the plains of the Punjab[20] and Sindh, where the flow of the river becomes slow and highly braided. 710 km in India Jhelum Verinag 720 km Chenab Bara Lacha Pass 1180 km Ravi Near Rohtang Pass 725 km Beas Near Rohtang Pass 460 km Satluj Manasarovar-Rakas Lakes 1450 km total 1050 km in India Indus River System D.K. It follows a north-westerly course through Tibet. "Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert [where], without the river, there would be no life? The gradient of the river is also gentle here. The Guddu Barrage is 1,350 m (4,430 ft) long – irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat. The total drainage area of River Indus is approximately 11,65,000 km2. The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. Deeply, deeply concerned. 11 January, 2021. The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. [51], Large-scale diversion of the river's water for irrigation has raised far-reaching issues. The Indus river has two main tributaries, the Kabul on the right bank and the Panjnad on the left. The Indus River is one of the most beautiful rivers of India. It also serves as the main source of drinking water for the people of this region. It is believed to display a tidal bore, which is a phenomenon observed only in a few rivers. In India, the basin spreads over states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana and Union Territory of Chandigarh The Several tributaries of Indus river are – the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok and the Hunza, join it inRead More → In Sindh, the Indus burst its banks near Sukkur on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi. [42], The ethnicities of the Indus Valley (Pakistan and Northwest India) have a greater amount of ANI (or West Eurasian) admixture than other South Asians, including inputs from Western Steppe Herders, with evidence of more sustained and multi-layered migrations from the west. Submitted by: WIQAR AHMAD. The Himalayan Rivers existed even before the formation of Himalayas i.e. This flood system may have been the Indus Valleys greatest triumph as they had harnessed the power to control the annual floods to their advantage, without the devastating impact that came with the flourishing of crops. The Government of Pakistan established the Indus River System Authority in the year_____? The Indus River (called Sindhū in Sanskrit with cognates in most Indic languages) is one of the main rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the Indian subcontinent. The Indus System is one of the largest river basins of the world. The Indus river follows a long and straight course in Ladakh, running between the Ladakh and the Zaskar ranges. It is the largest river in the world in terms of water flow. Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. [citation needed] Other variants of the name Sindhu include Assyrian Sinda (as early as the 7th century BC), Persian Ab-e-sind, Pashto Abasind, Arab Al-Sind, Chinese Sintow, and Javanese Santri. [35], The Indus River basin has a high diversity, being the home of more than 180 freshwater fish species,[36] including 22 which are found nowhere else. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. A great river of South Asia, the Indus has long been a vital feature of the land that is now India and Pakistan.It is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a length of some 2,000 miles (3,200 kilometers). The Indus arises from the northern slopes of the Kailash range in Tibet near Lake Manasarovar. Forgot password? The Indus Valley System. [36] This includes including pomfret and prawns. The Indus River basin and its drainage network. It has a large number of tributaries in both India and Pakistan and has a total length of about 2897 km from the source to the point near Karachi where it falls into the Arabian Sea out of which approx 700km lies in India. [citation needed]. It is subspecies of the South Asian river dolphin. Indus river is sacred to Hindus. The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river. "Indus Valley" redirects here. [31] The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border. The Yangtze is the only river contributing more plastic. The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at the Pakistan, Iran border to Kutch in modern Gujarat, India. Indus River, great trans-Himalayan river of South Asia. The Indus arises from the northern slopes of the Kailash range in Tibet near Lake Manasarovar. According to this treaty, India can utilize only 20 per cent of its total discharge of water. The Indus river and its watershed has a rich biodiversity. Several tributaries like, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok, and the Hunza, join it in the Kashmir region. It also serves as the main source of drinking water for the people of this region. Alaknanda River joins Bhagirathi river at Devaprayag. km and a total length of 2,880 km (in India 1,114 km). Fig : Indus River The Indus basin extends over China (Tibet), India, Afghanistan and Pakistan . Irrigation itself is increasing soil salinization, reducing crop yields and in some cases rendering farmland useless for cultivation.[52]. The Nile River Valley had its desert around them, which limited the people that could come to fight them. Indus River - Indus River - Irrigation: Irrigation from Indus waters has provided the basis for successful agriculture since time immemorial. The Indus river system forms a link between two large natural reservoirs, the snow and glaciers in the mountains and the groundwater contained by the alluvium in the Indus plains of the Sindh and Punjab Provinces of Pakistan (Ojeh, 2006). Kilometres or 4,50,000 Sq. The 3rd millennium BC saw the rise of a major urban civilization of the Bronze Age. Register Now. The earliest chronicles and hymns of the Aryan peoples of ancient India, the Rigveda, composed about 1500 BCE, mention the river, which is … Indus River System Authority Water Apportionment Accord (WAA) was signed amongst the Provinces on 16.03.1991 and approved by the Council of Common Interests (CCI) on 21.03.1991. [36] The lowermost part of the river and its delta are home to freshwater fish, but also a number of brackish and marine species. [33], The Indus river dolphin (Platanista indicus minor) is found only in the Indus River. In the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, e.g. [69][70] There are some bridges on river Indus, such as, Dadu Moro Bridge, Larkana Khairpur Indus River Bridge, Thatta-Sujawal bridge, Jhirk-Mula Katiar bridge and recently planned Kandhkot-Ghotki bridge. Kailash) mountain ranges. Over several centuries Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane and Babur crossed the river to invade Sindh and Punjab, providing a gateway to the Indian subcontinent. This has reduced the flow of water a… The river systems provide irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, and the livelihoods for a large number of people all over the country. They each developed their own system of writing. The smooth-coated otters in the Indus River represent a subspecies found nowhere else, the Sindh otter (Lutrogale perspicillata sindica). It is among the longest rivers in the world, with a total length of 2,000 miles from its source to drainage. The Indus acts as the main source of water supply for Pakistan. This lever has a total length of 2897 km and finally terminates at the Arabian Sea. [58], The Indus is second among a group of ten rivers responsible for about 90% of all the plastic that reaches the oceans. It serves as the major source of irrigation and food production in Pakistan. Due to the success of their water systems and overall sanitation, the population of the Indus valley grew. The Indus River System of India. IRSA Newsletter December 01 - 31st, 2020.....More. They may also have used water in religious ceremonies. The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi). It enters Indian territory in Jammu and Kashmir. [72] In response to the levees construction, the river has been aggrading rapidly over the last 20 years leading to breaches upstream of barrages and inundation of large areas.[73]. Notable examples of genera that are present in the lower plain but generally not elsewhere in the Indus River basin are the Aphanius pupfish, Aplocheilus killifish, palla fish (Tenualosa ilisha), catla (Labeo catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and Cirrhinus mrigala. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centers. [67] Sindh is a fertile region and often called the "breadbasket" of the country; the damage and toll of the floods on the local agrarian economy was said to be extensive. Reported 18 August 2009", "SEPA orders polluting factory to stop production", "Fishing poison killing Indus dolphins, PA told", "Threat to dolphin: Govt bans fishing between Guddu and Sukkur", "Almost all plastic in the ocean comes from just 10 rivers - 30.11.2017", "Export of Plastic Debris by Rivers into the Sea", "Asia flooding plunges millions into misery", "Pakistan issues flooding 'red alert' for Sindh province", "BBC News – Pakistan floods: World Bank to lend $900m for recovery", "BBC News – Millions of Pakistan children at risk of flood diseases", "Pakistan floods: Oxfam launches emergency aid response", Government of Pakistan Pakmet.com.pk Retrieved on 19 September 2011, "PM okays Indus river barrage to mitigate water woes", "Center announces Rs125bn Sindh barrage project", "Government to launch Kandhkot-Ghotki bridge over River Indus next month: Sindh CM", "Restore Pakistan's rivers, handle floods, droughts and climate change", "Pakistan: Getting More from Water (see Page 50)", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law, Indus River watershed map (World Resources Institute), First raft and kayak descents of the Indus headwaters in Tibet, Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting's project on water issues in South Asia, Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Inventions of the Indus Valley Civilisation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indus_River&oldid=1000960596, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia external links cleanup from April 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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